This report details the findings of three research studies: • In January 2015 the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) sent a Freedom of Information (FOI) request to the 136 NHS trusts in England about their spending on agency midwives for 2012,2013 and 2014. The FOI had a response rate of 95.6% (130 trusts responded). • In July 2015 the RCM conducted a survey of RCM members who work agency shifts. We had 138 responses to the survey. • Every year the RCM conducts an annual survey of Heads of Midwifery (HOM). This publication gives results from the last two HOMs surveys, so the results for 1st April 2014 and 1st April 2015. The survey was conducted in June/July 2014 and June/ July 2015 and was conducted by email to HOMs across the UK. In 2014 64 HOMs giving a response rate of 38.3% and in 2015 83 HOMs responded giving a response rate of 50.3%.