In 2003, the Council of the European Union had issued recommendations setting out principles of best practice in the early detection of cancer. The recommendations called on all EU countries to take common action to implement national, population-based screening programmes for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. A first report analysing the state of implementation followed in 2008 and showed that, despite progress being made, Member States still had fallen short of the target set for the minimum number of examinations by more than 50%.   The publication of the second report on the implementation of the Council recommendations on cancer screening. The report has been supported by the European Commission and prepared by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with the collaboration of the CPO Piemonte in Italy and the Finnish Cancer Registry. It presents the state of play of screening of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer in the 28 EU countries. New indicators such as the ones on performance of cancer screening programmes have been added