Microscopic hematuria is a frequent reason for referral to urology. It is often found incidentally as a result of routine examination in patients without urinary tract symptoms. Although there is generally no debate about the need to investigate fully patients with gross hematuria, there is often controversy regarding the approach to the patient with
asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. The main issues disputed are related to the detection and definition of significant microscopic hematuria, which patients should be investigated, and how should they be evaluated. These guidelines, which replace previous guidance of 1998, address the management of the condition.