Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) comprises approximately 2% of all malignancies. It is the seventh most common cancer and tenth most common cause of cancer-related deaths among men. Risk factors for RCC include smoking, obesity, and hereditary conditions associated with a mutation in the von-Hippel-Lindau gene (level 2). Surgical resection (radical or partial nephrectomy) remains the only effective therapy for clinically localized RCC. Although there is no clear consensus on surveillance after surgical extirpation for patients with RCC, this document attempts to provide some clarity and guidance for the practicing urologist based on the current literature.