The establishment of a PET (positron emission tomography) facility constitutes a large commitment in terms of initial capital and infrastructure development and support, especially in developing countries, where PET and CT (computed tomography) are in limited use or absent. The emergence of a hybrid system, such as PET/CT, has stimulated much interest among clinicians as it provides additional information which is essential for the management of many cancers. This publication is intended to assist health care administrators and clinicians in their efforts to plan and establish a new clinical PET facility. It covers the role of PET and the emerging hybrid technology PET/CT, which provides additional information for successful cancer management, as well as local high priority health issues. It also provides comprehensive information for the establishment of medically oriented cyclotron facilities for the production of PET tracers and of radiopharmacies, all central to the delivery of PET services. Cost effectiveness of PET and strategies for useful decision making with regard to implementation of PET procedures in clinical practice are also covered.