As was the case with the first version of these guidelines for the detection, monitoring and care of patients with CKD, published in 2007, this update follows the publication of National Guidelines applicable to England and Wales (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, NICE), and Scotland (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, SIGN). This situation has produced for us as authors both advantages and challenges. On the one hand we have been able to draw on the comprehensive reviews of published evidence presented in the NICE and SIGN guidelines. Given this situation, we have not attempted to duplicate the excellent work already done by these guideline development groups and will present only a brief rationale for each guideline, rather than an exhaustive review of the literature. On the other hand, we face the challenge of producing a guideline that is compatible with both National Guidelines despite minor differences between them. In an effort to produce unified guidance applicable to all members of the Renal Association, we have attempted to phrase all guideline statements to be compatible with both the NICE and SIGN guidance.