Malnutrition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common but is often undiagnosed. This evidence-based clinical practice guideline summarises the main interventions that may be recommended in the prevention and management of undernutrition in this patient population. Undernutrition is a more frequent finding in established renal failure (ERF) (present in 30-40% of patients) and is associated with reduced patient survival. The guideline authors regularly search Medline and reference lists from original and review articles to evaluate the nutrition literature and are familiar with the literature pertaining to nutrition and renal disease. The existing North American (K-DOQI 2000) and European (Locatelli et al 2002) guidelines on the assessment of nutrition in renal patients were reviewed and primary sources examined as appropriate. This document offers a reinterpretation and update of those guidelines and incorporates recent UK Department of Health initiatives on nutritional screening.