[PDF] Canadian guidelines for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer : a focus on intravesical

Canadian Urological Association
Canadian Urological Association
Publication date:
01 June 2010


This manuscript provides a Canadian consensus on the management of NMIBC, with an emphasis on intravesical therapy, a comprehensive review of the literature and a review of the guidelines from the European Association of Urology, the American Urological Association and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

Risk factors that have been associated with bladder cancer include smoking, chronic inflammatory changes in the bladder (due to persistent bladder stones, recurrent urinary tract infections, indwelling catheters or schistosomiasis) and chemotherapeutic exposure, such as cyclophosphamide.