This report concludes that the additional cost of treating long term conditions for those with depression and other mental health problems is between £8-13 billion a year. it finds that this additional cost can be attributed to the extra difficulties in treating physical illness among patients with mental health problems, including poorer self-management. However, the cost is not just a financial one. Patients with a long-term condition and co-existing mental health issue face poorer clinical outcomes and a significantly lower quality of life than people with a physical health problem alone. The report concludes that the costs of caring for people with long-term conditions could be reduced if the NHS was to manage the mental health needs of these people more effectively and makes recommendations for a better understanding of the costs of co-morbidities, improvement in psychological literacy across the workforce and closer integration between primary care, hospitals and mental health services.