Miller JM, Lessin HR (2012) Instrument-based pediatric vision screening policy statement. Pediatrics 130: 983-986
Screening for amblyogenic refractive error with instrument-based screening is not dependent on behavioural responses of children, as it is when visual acuity is measured. Instrument-based screening is quick, requires minimal co-operation of the child, and is especially useful in the pre-verbal, pre-literate, or developmentally delayed child. Children younger than four years can benefit from instrument-based screening, and visual acuity testing can be used reliably in older children.