AAGBI published guidelines in 2002 on problems relating to infection control in anaesthetic practice and this is an updated version of that guidance document. Healthcare organisations now have a legal responsibility to implement changes to reduce healthcare associated infections (HCAIs). The Health Act 2006 provided the Healthcare Commission with statutory powers to enforce compliance with the Code of Practice for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infection (The Code). The Code provides a framework for NHS Bodies to plan and implement structures and systems aimed at prevention of HCAIs and sets out criteria that mandate NHS bodies, including Acute Trusts, to ensure that patients are cared for in a clean environment. Anaesthetists should be in the forefront of ensuring that their patients are cared for in the safest possible environment.